1. A Measurement Model for Dignity, Face, and Honor Cultural Norms
Jingjing Yao, Jimena Ramirez-Marin, Jeanne Brett, Soroush Aslani, and Zhaleh Semnani-Azad
In this work we develop and validate a model measuring norms that distinguish three types of culture: dignity, face, and honor (Leung & Cohen, 2011). Our motivation is to produce empirical evidence for this new cultural framework and use the framework to explain cultural differences in interdependent social interactions such as negotiation. In two studies, we establish the content validity, construct validity, predictive validity, and measurement invariance of this measurement model. In Study 1, we present the model’s three-factor structure and situate the constructs of dignity, face, and honor in a nomological network of cultural constructs. In Study 2, which uses a sample of participants from 26 cultures, we show that the measurement model discriminates among people from the three cultural regions corresponding to the dignity, face, and honor framework. In particular, we report differences between face and honor cultures, which are not distinguished in other cultural frameworks (e.g., Hofstede 1980). We also show that the measurement model accounts for cultural differences in norms for use of negotiation strategy.
KEYWORDS: dignity, face, honor, negotiation strategy, norms
2. Cultural Values Verses Cultural Norms as Predictors of Differences in Helping Behaviors and in Emotion Regulation: A Preliminary Nation-Level Test Related to the Leung-Morris Model
Peter B. Smith
Leung and Morris (2015) propose conditions under which values, norms and schemata drive cultural differences in behavior. They build on past theories about dimensions of situational strength to propose that personal values drive behavior more in weak situations and perceived norms drive behavior more in strong situations. Drawing on this analysis as well as two recent models of cultural tightness-looseness, country-level effects are predicted on the assumption that tighter cultures more frequently create strong situations and looser cultures more frequently create weak situations. Using secondary data, I examine values as well as perceived descriptive norms and injunctive norms relevant to collectivism in relation to two key dependent measures: helping strangers and emotion regulation. The relation of embeddedness values to helping strangers is moderated negatively by tightness (in that high embeddedness reduces helping less in the context of tightness), and its relation to emotion regulation is moderated positively (in that embeddedness increases emotion regulation more in the context of tightness). Furthermore, descriptive norms show main effects for both dependent variables that are predominantly unmoderated by tightness. Finally, the link of injunctive norms with emotion regulation is moderated positively by tightness (in that injunctiveness heightens emotion regulation more in the context of tightness). Results support the relevance of nation-level tightness to reliance on values and norms, but the strength of effects depends on how it is operationalized.
KEYWORDS: emotion regulation, helping, norms, tight-loose, values
3. Unlocking Expatriates’ Job Creativity: The Role of Cultural Learning, and Metacognitive and Motivational Cultural Intelligence
Xiao-Jun Xu and Xiao-Ping Chen
In this article, we extend Amabile’s componential theory of creativity to account for cross-cultural creativity by conceptualizing cultural learning as a crucial component in the creativity relevant process. We hypothesize a significant positive relationship between cultural learning and expatriates’ cross-cultural job creativity, and that this relationship will be enhanced by domain learning and the cultural distance between the host and home countries. Moreover, we propose that expatriates with higher metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence will engage in greater cultural learning, which in turn will be related to job creativity. Data from 219 expatriate-supervisor dyads of 36 Chinese multinational companies reveal that metacognitive CQ and motivational CQ are indeed positive antecedents to cultural learning, which in turn positively relates to cross-cultural job creativity, especially for high domain learning expatriates who work in a foreign culture not vastly different from home. Our findings make significant contributions to the existing literature on creativity and provide nuanced understanding of the relationship between cultural intelligence, cultural learning and cross-cultural job creativity. Our findings also have important implications for expatriate management.
KEYWORDS: cross-cultural job creativity, cultural distance, cultural learning, domain learning, metacognitive CQ, motivational CQ
4. Superficial Harmony and Conflict Avoidance Resulting from Negative Anticipation in the Workplace
Zhi-Xue Zhang and Xin Wei
This research examines how people perceive and respond to potential conflict in work settings. When individuals highly value their interpersonal relationships with others, they may take the potential costs to relationships into consideration in deciding how to handle conflict. We propose that individuals take an avoidance approach to conflict to prevent disruption in relationships from confrontation. Specifically, the value that individuals place on superficial harmony is positively related to their negative anticipation of relationship costs, which in turn leads to conflict avoidance. Furthermore, the direct relationship between superficial harmony and negative anticipation and the indirect relationship between superficial harmony and conflict avoidance are negatively moderated by the closeness of relations between the parties involved. The results of two studies conducted in workplace settings supported our hypothesized moderated mediation model. Highlighting the role of superficial harmony in conflict avoidance, this research contributes to the existing literature on conflict management and has practical implications for effectively managing conflict in the workplace.
KEYWORDS: conflict avoidance, negative anticipation, relationship closeness, superficial harmony, workplace
5. Justice Climates and Management Team Effectiveness: The Central Role of Group Harmony
Ali F. Ünal, Chao C. Chen, and Katherine R. Xin
Although social harmony is one of the most important cultural values in many of the Asian societies it has rarely been studied in the mainstream management literatures. Based on the group-value theory of justice we examined how group justice climates influence group effectiveness through group harmony. Analyses of data on 106 upper-level management teams from Chinese organizations showed that justice climates were positively associated with group harmony, which in turn was positively associated with team task performance and team helping behavior. Group harmony was found to significantly mediate the positive effect of both distributive and interactional justice climates on team helping behavior but only marginally on team task performance. Finally, in support of past research both at the group and individual level, procedural justice climate had the weakest effect on group processes and outcomes. By applying the group value theory on group harmony this papers aims to integrate Eastern and Western perspectives on one hand and the justice climates and group harmony research on the other. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
KEYWORDS: group harmony, intragroup relationship, justice climate, team helping behavior, team performance
6. Cultural Universals and Cultural Differences in Meta-Norms about Peer Punishment
Kimmo Eriksson, Pontus Strimling, Per A. Andersson, Mark Aveyard, Markus Brauer, Vladimir Gritskov, Toko Kiyonari, David M. Kuhlman, Angela T. Maitner, Zoi Manesi, Catherine Molho, Leonard S. Peperkoorn, Muhammad Rizwan, Adam W. Stivers, Qirui Tian, Paul A. M. Van Lange, Irina Vartanova, Junhui Wu, and Toshio Yamagishi
Violators of cooperation norms may be informally punished by their peers. How such norm enforcement is judged by others can be regarded as a meta-norm (i.e., a second-order norm). We examined whether meta-norms about peer punishment vary across cultures by having students in eight countries judge animations in which an agent who over-harvested a common resource was punished either by a single peer or by the entire peer group. Whether the punishment was retributive or restorative varied between two studies, and findings were largely consistent across these two types of punishment. Across all countries, punishment was judged as more appropriate when implemented by the entire peer group than by an individual. Differences between countries were revealed in judgments of punishers vs. non-punishers. Specifically, appraisals of punishers were relatively negative in three Western countries and Japan, and more neutral in Pakistan, UAE, Russia, and China, consistent with the influence of individualism, power distance, and/or indulgence. Our studies constitute a first step in mapping how meta-norms vary around the globe, demonstrating both cultural universals and cultural differences.
KEYWORDS: cross-cultural research, individualism-collectivism, meta-norms, norm enforcement peer punishment
7. Kiasu and Creativity in Singapore: An Empirical Test of the Situated Dynamics Framework
Chi-Ying Cheng and Ying-Yi Hong
This article investigates how Singaporeans’ creativity is influenced by Kiasu, an indigenous construct corresponding to fear of losing out. We examine the impacts of Kiasu on creativity, both as a personal value and a shared cultural norm in four studies. Study 1 showed that Singaporeans’ Kiasu value endorsement predicts lower individual creativity. Study 2 demonstrated that this negative relationship is mediated by a self-regulatory focus on prevention. Study 3 further showed the impacts of Kiasu as a personal value and a cultural norm by finding a significant three-way interaction effect of Kiasu prime, personal Kiasu value endorsement, and need for cognitive closure on participants’ creativity. Study 4 addressed the Singaporean paradox and found that Singaporeans exhibit higher creativity when primed with their multi-ethnic culture than under control conditions. However, those who associated Singapore with Kiasu lost this advantage. These findings support the situated dynamics framework of cultural influence on behavior such that values, norms, and situational cues play a role in producing a cultural pattern of creative performance. This research also has implications for how to incubate creative performance in Asian countries.
KEYWORDS: culture, creativity, Kiasu, need for cognitive closure, prevention focus, Singapore, Singaporean culture